Suggestions on Format Introduction: Please keep these to 5 minutes. And the audience should refrain from essentially all questions. Clarifying Questions: Welcome at all times. If you do not understand something, it is highly likely that other people do not as well, so please ask. Deeper Questions: These typically have much higher value added when brought up after the main results have been given, so that the audience understands the framework the author is using and the author has narrowed down the question to a precise one. Anticipatory Questions: Questions such as ``Will this feature be important’’ or ``Are you going to look at x’’ are typically very low value added. It is much better to let the author put up the results and then ask such questions.
New NBER affiliates are appointed through a highly competitive process that begins with a call for nominations in January. Candidates are evaluated based on their research records and their capacity to contribute to the NBER's activities by program directors and steering committees. New affiliates must hold primary academic appointments in North America. On January 1, 2020, there were 1,581 NBER-affiliated researchers based at 180 institutions.